||M. Achuthan, 302221Engineering Thermodynamics302222, Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 2002. F. W. Sears and G. L. Salinger, 302221Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Statistical Thermodynamics302222, Addison-Wesley/Narosa, New Delhi, 1975. M. J. Moran and H. N. Shapiro, 302221Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics302222, Third Edition, John Wiley, New York, 1995. R.E. Sonntag, C. Borgnakke and G.J. Van Wylen, 302221Fundamentals of Thermodynamics302222, Fifth Edition, John Wiley, Singapore, 2002.M. W. Zemansky, 302221Heat and Thermodynamics302222, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Kogakusha, New York/Tokyo, 1957. Steam Tables
||Introduction to thermodynamics. System, surroundings, boundaries, classi?cation of systems. Units and dimensions. Conversion factors. Properties of systems. Equilibrium, processes, interactions. The work interaction. Thermodynamic de?nition of work. Characteristics of the work interaction. Evaluation of work.011Adiabatic boundary. Adiabatic systems and processes. Adiabatic work. The First Law. Basic form. Energy of a system. The heat interaction. Sign convention.011Diathermic boundary. Zeroth law. Isothermal states. Empirical temperature. Principles of thermometry. Scales of temperature. Gas thermometer. The ideal gas. Ideal gas temperature scale. The state principle. Equations of state. Properties of gases. Properties of steam. Introduction to steam tables. Other equations of state. Van-der-Waals gas. Critical state. Reduced equation of state. First law for open systems. Derivation of the general form. Special cases. Steady-?ow energy equation. The Second Law. Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements. Equivalence of statements. Carnot theorem. Thermodynamic temperature. Kelvin scale. Carnot engine. Equivalence of thermodynamic Kelvin scale and ideal gas Kelvin scale. Clausius inequality. De?nition of entropy. Evaluation of entropy. Principle of increase of entropy. Formulation of second law for closed and open systems. Combined ?rst and second laws. Availability and Exergy. Lost work.