||1. E. Kreyszig, Advanced engineering mathematics (8th Edition), John Wiley (1999).2. W. E. Boyce and R. DiPrima, Elementary Diﬀerential Equations (8th Edition), John Wiley (2005).3. T. M. Apostol, Calculus, Volume 2 (2nd Edition), Wiley Eastern, 1980.
||Exact equations, integrating factors and Bernoulli equations.Orthogonal tra jectories.Lipschitz condition, Picard302222s theorem, examples on nonuniqueness.Linear diﬀerential equations generalities.Linear dependence and Wronskians.Dimensionality of space of solutions, Abel-Liouville formula.Linear ODE302222s with constant co eﬃcients, the characteristic equations.Cauchy-Euler equations.Metho d of undetermined co eﬃcients.Metho d of variation of parameters.Laplace transform generalities.Shifting theorems.